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   1976 Standard Atmosphere Properties   Complete standard atmosphere calculations:
Highlight field, type in the unit and get
the conversion for all other units

1976 Standard Atmosphere
(0-86 km)

Show additional decimal point
Geometric Altitude (Z)
Geopotential Altitude (H)    [m]  [ft] [sm]
Lapse rate (λ or LM)    [K/m]
[oC/1000 ft]
[oF/1000 ft]
Temperature Ratio (θ)      
Molecular Temperature (TM)


Kinetic Temperature (T)   [K]
Mean Molec. Wt. Ratio (M/M0)    
Mean Molecular Weight (M)   [kg/kmol] or [lb/lbmol]  
Pressure Ratio (δ)      
Pressure (P)   [Pa] or  [N/m2]
  [hPa] or [mbar]
 [in Hg]
[mmHg] or [torr]
Density Ratio (σ)      
Density (ρ)   [kg/m3] [slug/ft3]
Gravitational Accel. Ratio (g/g0)      
Gravitational Acceleration (g)   [m/s2] [ft/s2]  
Dynamic Viscosity Ratio (μ/μ0)      
Dynamic Viscosity (μ)   [kg/(m·s)]  [slug/(ft·s)]
Kinematic Viscosity Ratio (η/η0)      
Kinematic Viscosity (η)   [m2/s]  [ft2/s]  
Speed of Sound Ratio (CS/CS0)      
Speed of Sound (CS)   [m/s] [ft/s]   [Kts]
Pressure Scale Height (HP)    [m]  [ft]  [sm]
Number Density (N)
Mean Air-Particle Speed (V)    [m/s] [ft/s]  [Kts]
Mean Collision Frequency (v)
Mean Free Path (L)    [m]  [ft]  [sm]
Therm. Cond. Ratio (kt/kt0)      
Therm. Conductivity Coeff. (kt)    [W/(m·K)]
Mole Volume (vm)    [m3/kmol]  [ft3/lbmol]

Enter any field and get all corresponding results based on that field. When entering lapse rate, kinetic or molecular temperature, temperature ratio, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity coefficient, mean particle speed, pressure scale height, or speed of sound, which have multiple solutions, the computer will choose the solution corresponding to the lowest geopotential altitude. If you enter a number that lies outside the envelope of Standard Atmosphere all fields will become blank until the number is in the envelope. No annoying error messages! ! Extrapolations are allowed up to -5000 m of geometric height.

The results ARE corrected for M/Mo ≠ 1 between 80 km and 86 km of geometric height. Please note that many tables including those in the U.S. 1976 Standard Atmosphere are not corrected but do mention that this correction should be applied.

The equivalent of 378 different functions!
Since any field can be entered (every fuction/property has an inverse) and since and there are 28 fucntions/properties, therefore these calculations perform the equivalent of 378 combinations of different functions for standard atmosphere.


  Constants (as specified by the standard - This may defer slightly from values adopted in other applications)
Boltzmann Constant (k)
Sea Level Air Mean Molecular Weight (M0)
  [kg/kmol] or [lb/lbmol]  
Universal Gas Constant (R*)
Sea Level Gravity Acceleration (g0)
Dimensional Constant (g0')
Sea Level Pressure (P0
  [Pa] or  [N/m2]  
Reference Radius of Earth (r0)
Sea Level Temperature (T0
Sutherland Constant (S)
Ratio of Specific Heats (γ)
Mean Effective Collision Diameter (σ)
Sea Level Density (ρ0
Sea Level Dynamic Viscosity (μ0)
Sea Level Kinematic Viscosity (ν0

  Standard Atmosphere Layers in Metric Units
Layer Geopotential Height Lapse Rate (λ)
[oC/1000 ft]
Base [m]        Top [m]  
0 - 1 0   11 000   -1.9812  
1 - 2 11 000   20 000   0  
2 - 3 20 000   32 000   0.3048  
3 - 4 32 000   47 000   0.85344  
4 - 5 47 000   51 000   0  
5 - 6 51 000   71 000   -0.85344  
6 - 7 71 000   84 852   -0.60960  

  Standard Atmosphere Layers in English units          
Layer Geopotential Height Lapse Rate (λ)
[oF/1000 ft]
Base [ft]        Top [ft]  
0 - 1 0   36 089   -3.5662  
1 - 2 36 089   65 617   0  
2 - 3 65 617   104 987   0.54864  
3 - 4 104 987   154 199   1.5362  
4 - 5 154 199   167 323   0  
5 - 6 167 323   232 940   1.5362  
6 - 7 232 940   278 386   -1.0973  

       U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976

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Units and Abbreviations
Length or Distance
m -  meters
ft -  feet
in -  inches
sm -  statute miles
oF -  degrees Fahrenheit 
oC -  degrees Celsius 
oR -  degrees Rankine 
K -  Kelvin
Weight and Mass
lbs -  pounds
slug -  slug
kg -  kilogram
Ammount of Molecules
kmol -  kilomole
lbmol -  pound-mole
N -  Newtrons
lbf pound-force
InHg -  Inches of Mercury
Pa -  Pascal
N/m2 Newtrons per square meter
hPa -  hectopascal
mmHg -  milimeters of mercury
lbf /ft2 pounds of force per square feet 
lbf /in2 pounds of force per square inch 
torr -  torr (Torricelli)
mbar -  milibar(s)
Length or Distance
m -  meters
ft -  feet
Nm -  nautical miles
km -  kilometers
sm -  statute miles
knots or kts-  knots (Nm/h)
ft/s -  feet per second
m/s -  meters per second
km/h -  kilometers per hour
sm/h -  statute miles per hour
h or hr(s) -  hour(s)
m or min(s) -  minute(s)
s or sec(s) -  second(s)
W -  Watt
BTU -  British Thermal Units


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